Supplemental Lecture (98/04/26 update) by Stephen T. Abedon (abedon.1@osu.edu)

  1. Chapter title: Infectious Diseases
    1. A list of vocabulary words is found toward the end of this document
  2. Abscess
    1. Localized, inflamed tissue surrounding pus. See Fusobacterium spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
    2. See pp. 414, 520, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the skin or eyes").
  3. Acne
    1. Inflammation of skin glands and hair follicles associated with pimples especially on the face and occurring chiefly during adolescents. See Propionibacterium acnes.
    2. See pp. 35, 286, 408, 517, 522-523, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the skin or eyes").
  4. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
    1. See AIDS.
  5. Actinomycosis
    1. Infection especially of the mouth and jaw characterized by hard masses that appear to be filled with grains or granules. See Actinomyces israelii.
  6. African trypanosomiasis
    1. Protozoa-caused, tsetse fly-transmitted disease. See Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.
  7. AIDS [acquired immunodeficiency syndrome]
    1. Viral disease caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Characterized by a decline in immune system function and numerous opportunistic infections. HIV often progresses to AIDS only after years of infection.
    2. See In The News (10/13/95).
  8. Amoebic dysentery
    1. Protozoa-caused, fecal contaminated drinking water-sourced dysentery. See Entamoeba histolytica
  9. Anisakiasis [wriggly worms]
    1. Helminth-caused disease of the gastrointestinal tract. See Anisakids spp..
  10. Anthrax
    1. A disease usually of cattle and sheep that is transmissible to man. Zoonotic from domestic livestock by contact with hides, animals, and even air and food. See Bacillus anthracis.
  11. Arboviral encephalitis
    1. See viral encephalitis.
  12. Ascariasis
    1. Helminth-caused disease of the small intestine. See Ascaris lumbricoides.
  13. Aspergillosis
    1. Opportunistic mycosis. See Aspergillus spp..
  14. Arthritis
    1. Inflammation of joints.
  15. Atypical pneumonia
    1. Pneumonias caused by organisms that are difficult to identify and cultivate clinically such as Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, Coxiella burnetiti, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Legionella spp., Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Pneumocystis carinii, Pseudomonas spp., Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, respiratory syncytial virus, and other viruses, etc. Compare with typical pneumonia. See pp. 597-600 Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the respiratory system").
  16. Babesiosis
    1. Tick-transmitted disease. See Babesia microti.
  17. Bacillary dysentery
    1. See shigellosis.
  18. Bacterial endocarditis
    1. Endocarditis caused by bacteria infection. Subacute bacterial endocarditis, fatal in months if left untreated, is usually found in people who have abnormal heart valves following invasion of the blood by bacteria from the mouth. It is characterized by clot formation in the heart. Far more dangerous is acute bacterial endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus which tends to be fatal in days or weeks.
  19. Bacterial meningitis
    1. About 50 different kinds of bacterial can cause meningitis. However, three bacteria account for about 80% of cases. In order of importance, these are: Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Mortality is high ranging from as low as 6% for H. influenzae to 26% for S. pneumoniae. Prompt treatment is important so is often based on presumptive diagnosis employing broad spectrum antibiotics. See pp. 539-541, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the nervous system").
  20. Balantidial dysentery
    1. Rare, protozoa-caused, fecal contaminated drinking water-sourced dysentery.
    2. See Balantidium coli.
  21. black_deathBlack death
    1. See bubonic plague.
  22. Blood poisoning
    1. See septicemia.
  23. Boil
    1. a.k.a., furuncle
    2. A folliculitis that has abscessed. Often caused by Staphylococcus aureus.
    3. See p. 520, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the skin or eyes").
  24. Botulism
    1. High mortality food poisoning induced by botulin, the exotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Symptoms include weakness, nausea, flacid paralysis, interference with vision, swallowing, and speech, and 25% to 70% mortality. Recovery requires regeration of nerve endings which can take months. In adults, botulism occurs when food substances are eaten which have been prepared in a manner favoring the growth of C. botulinum and the stability of botulin: heating that kills competing microorganisms but not C. botulinum endospores prior to storage, anaerobic storage (C. botulinum is an obligate anaerobe), and lack of adequate cooking (bringing up to boil) prior to ingestion. In infants, botulism can also occur as a result of C. botulinum colonization of the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion of soil and, especially, raw honey. Because of the very small amounts of toxin necessary to cause disease, recovery does not confer immunity.
    2. See pp. 146, 220, 285, 288, 347, 373, 397, 542-544, 666, 692. Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the nervous system").
  25. Breakbone fever
    1. See dengue.
  26. Bronchitis [bronchiolitis]
    1. Inflammation of the bronchial tubes of the lungs.
    2. See Haemophilus influenzae.
  27. Brucellosis
    1. A zoonosis of long duration characterized by weakness, night sweaters, fever, chills, aches, and pains acquired through contact with an infected animal or animals product (cattle, dogs, goats, and hogs depending on pathogen species).
    2. See Brucella spp..
  28. Bubonic plague [plague, black death]
    1. Zoonotic, rat flea-transmitted, epidemic disease caused by Yersinia pestis and characterized by fever and a high rate of mortality (50 to 75%) without treatment. See pneumonic plague.
    2. See pp. 279, 391, 393, 568-570, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the cardiovascular and lymphatic system").
    3. "In 1347 plague or black death struck Europe with brutal force. By 1351, only four years later, the plague had killed 1/3 of the population (about 25 million people). Over the next 80 years, the disease struck again and again, eventually wiping out 75% of the European population. Some historians believe that this disaster changed European culture and prepared the way for the Renaissance." (p. 3, Prescott et al., 1996)
  29. Burkitt's lymphoma
  30. Candidiasis
      1. Opportunistic mycosis of the mouth or genitourinary tract caused by Candida albicans that often occurs as a consequence of antibiotic therapy and associated loss of microbial antagonism.
      2. See pp. 303, 529-530, 657, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the skin or eyes").
  31. Carbuncle
    1. A localized skin infection that the body fails to contain thus resulting in invasion of surrounding tissue.
    2. See p. 520, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the skin or eyes").
  32. Cat-scratch disease
    1. See cat-scratch fever.
  33. Cat-scratch fever (cat-scratch disease)
    1. Zoonotic from domestic cats acquired via direct contact with hides, animals, and even air and food.
    2. See Afipia felis and Rochalimaea henselae.
  34. Chagas disease
    1. Protozoa-caused, kissing bug-transmitted disease transmitted by mechanical means (an arthropod defecates while feeding on an animal and the contaminated feces are rubbed into a wound).
    2. See Trypanosoma cruzi.
  35. Chickenpox [varicella]
    1. A viral disease, very common and mild when occurring during childhood, rare and often severe when occurring in adults. Respiratory portal of entry; pus filled skin lesion (as well as respiratory) portal of exit. Occurrence usually leads to immunity for life, though virus is retained in a latent state. Caused by a the varicella-zoster herpes virus.
    2. See pp. 349, 358, 524-525, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the skin or eyes").
  36. Childbirth fever [puerperal sepsis, puerperal fever]
    1. An infection of the uterus initiated by childbirth or abortion that can lead to septicemia. Streptococcus pyogenes is the most frequent cause. Because of modern hygenic practices and antibiotics, childbirth fever is now a rare complication of childbirth. See Semmelweis for a historical perspective.
    2. See pp. 10, 562, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the cardiovascular and lymphatic system").
  37. Chlamydia
    1. May be the most common sexually transmitted disease. See nongonococcal urethritis.
  38. Cholera
    1. Gastrointestinal disease causing electrolyte imbalances than can lead to shock, collapse, and a high rate of death (50% if untreated). Cholera is spread in conjunction with poor public sanitation.
    2. See Vibrio cholera.
  39. Ciguatera
    1. A disease endemic to the South Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea caused by Gambierdiscus toxicus and spread up the food chain to humans through fish.
  40. Coccidioidomycosis [valley fever]
    1. A systemic mycosis that superficially resembles tuberculosis. Coccidioidomycosis is relatively common in the Southwestern U.S. It is caused by the fungi Coccidioides immitis and is transmitted by the wind from its normal residence in the soil.
  41. Coccidiosis
    1. Protozoa-caused, domestic animal-sourced disease. See Isospora spp.
  42. Cold sore
    1. See oral herpes.
  43. Colorado tick fever
    1. No entry.
  44. Common cold
    1. An upper respiratory tract infection caused by a variety of viruses, (one of about 200 viruses though for about 40% of colds the infecting agent is not identifiable). Recovery leads to immunity against the infecting pathogen but there are so many serologically distinct cold etiologies that it is difficult to arrive at a point in life where subsequent bouts with the common cold are unlikely.
    2. See rhinoviruses and coronaviruses.
    3. See pp. 592-593 Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the respiratory system").
  45. Conjunctivitis
    1. Inflammation of the mucous membrane that lines the inside of the eyelids and part of the eyeball (the conjunctiva).
    2. See Moraxella lacunata.
  46. Consumption
    1. See tuberculosis.
  47. Cystitis
    1. Inflammation of the urinary bladder.
  48. Cytomegalovirus inclusion disease
    1. No entry.
  49. Dengue [breakbone fever, dengue fever]
    1. Mosquito-transmitted disease.
  50. Dengue hemorrhagic fever
    1. Mosquito-transmitted disease.
  51. Diarrhea
    1. See Cryptosporidium spp. and Nosema spp..
  52. Diphtheria
    1. Once the leading infectious killer of children, diphtheria is a pharyngitis caused by exotoxin expressing Corynebacterium diphtheriae. C. diphtheriae toxoid is the D in DPT vaccine. Note that since the anti-C. diphtheriae vaccine employs only a toxoid, immunity to diphtheria among individuals would be expected to wear off over time and indeed only as few as 25% of adult populations display effective immunity levels against dipheria toxin.
    2. See pp. 88, 286, 396-397, 455, 590-591 Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the digestive system").
  53. Dysentery
    1. Severe diarrhea characterized by passage of mucous and blood.
    2. See pp. 279, 314, 315, 616, 620, 631-632 Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the digestive system").
  54. Encephalitis
    1. An infection of the brain.
    2. See pp. 348, 547, 549-550, 525-526, 553 Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the nervous system").
  55. Endemic murine typhus
    1. Less severe, epidemic typhus-like typhus caused by Rickettia typhi.
  56. Epidemic typhus
    1. Severe, lice-spread zoonotic (rodents) typhus caused by Rickettia prowazekii and characterized by prolonged fever, delirium, intense headaches, dark red rash, and high mortality if left untreated. The occurrence of epidemic typhus is associated crowded and unsanitary conditions. Without vaccination, epidemic typhus is especially a problem among soldiers in the field.
    2. See pp. 281, 283, 572, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the cardiovascular and lymphatic system").
  57. Endocarditis
    1. An inflammation of the endocardium, the lining of the interior of the heart.
  58. Epiglottitis
    1. Inflammation of the epiglottis (the cartilage rimmed opening in the back of your mouth, top of your throat, that moves up and down when you swallow). Epiglottitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae is a rapidly developing disease that can result in death in a matter of hours.
    2. See pp. 280, 589 Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the respiratory system").
  59. Fever blisters
    1. See oral herpes.
  60. Folliculitis
    1. Hair follicle infection often caused by Staphylococcus aureus. See acne pimple, and boil.
    2. See p. 520, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the skin or eyes").
  61. Food poisoning
    1. Acute gastrointestinal disorder caused either by bacteria growth in the gastrointestinal tract (and therefore with a less rapid onset) or by the consumption of food in which bacteria growth has occurred and bacterial toxins have accumulated (and therefore with a more rapid onset). Food poisoning is often associated with symptoms such as vomiting, nausea, diarrhea (often severe), and physical incapacitation.
    2. See Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus.
  62. Furuncle
    1. See boil.
  63. Gangrene
    1. Local death of tissue caused by a loss of blood supply. Without blood, tissue can support the growth of obligate anaerobes. See gas gangrene.
  64. Gas gangrene
    1. A uniformly fatal (without treatment) progressive gangrene associated with gas formation within the (fermentation of) dead tissue, especially muscle tissue. Gas gangrene is usually caused by Clostridium perfringens which is not only opportunistic but once established actively kills tissue. Prevention of gas gangrene requires cleaning of serious wounds as well as prophylactic antibiotic treatment. Treatment involves the removal of dead tissue as well as exposure to an oxygen rich atmosphere in a hyperbaric chamber.
    2. See pp. 44, 285, 567-568, 666 Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the cardiovascular and lymphatic system").
  65. Gastroenteritis
    1. A disease that caused inflammation of the stomach of intestinal mucosa.
  66. Genital herpes
    1. Sexually transmitted viral disease caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (less often herpes simplex virus type 1) characterized by usually recurrent lesions which form in the urogenital region. For genital herpes, the portals of both entry and exit are through the skin. Acqisition of genital herpes is incompletely inhibited by condom use. 30 million Americans probably have the disease. It is recurrent in at least 50% of them. Females are less likely to be aware that they have the disease than are men. Genital herpes can infect the newborn during birth.
    2. See pp. 525, 655-656, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the skin or eyes").
  67. Genital warts
    1. Sexually transmitted warts, 10% of serotypes associated with cervical cancer in woman and, with less frequency, penis cancer in men. Recently (1997) shown to be associated with anal cancer. Approximately one-half million new cases of genital warts occur annually. Acqisition of genital warts is inhibited by condom use.
    2. See pp. 656-657, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the urinary and reproductive systems").
  68. German measles [rubella]
    1. A mild viral disease caused by the rubella virus. Rubella has a respiratory portal of entry. Congenital rubella syndrome (birth defects) can occur if a women becomes infected during the first trimester of a pregnancy. Rubella is the R in the MMR vaccine.
    2. See pp. 526, 527, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the skin or eyes").
  69. Giardial enteritis
    1. Protozoa-caused, fecal contaminated drinking water-sourced disease. See Acanthamoeba spp. See Giardia lamblia.
  70. Giardiasis
    1. Waterborne, Giardia lamblia-caused disease (especially diarrhea) of the gastrointestinal tract. 7% of humans in the U.S. are carriers as well as untold numbers of animals (especially beavers). G. lamblia cysts are tolerant of chlorine so filtration (or boiling) is the best means of dissinfecting water prior to use. Diagnosis of giardiasis by stool examination is notoriously difficult. The string test is more reliable. See p. 631 of Tortora et al., 1995 for a description.
    2. See pp. 314, 315, 402, 507, 631, 676, 680 Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the digestive system").
  71. Gonorrhea
    1. Sexually transmitted disease causing in early stages an inflammation of mucous membranes wherever contact with the etiological agent, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, occurs. Left untreated the infection eventually becomes systemic. Approximately 600,000 reported cases occur each year predominantly among 15 to 24 year-olds. Following contact with the etiological agent the odds of infection are 20 to 35% for males and 60 to 90% for females. Unfortunately, though in males early symptoms of gonorrhea are fairly recognizable (pus discharge from penis), in females this is not the case. Recovery from gonorrhea does not confer immunity and though treatment is straightforward, antibiotic resistant stains of N. gonorrhoeae are increasingly prevalent. Acqisition of gonorrhea is inhibited by condom use.
    2. See pp. 76, 277, 278, 531-532, 648-649, 650, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the urinary and reproductive systems").
  72. Hansenosis [Hansen's disease]
    1. See leprosy.
  73. Herpes
    1. See oral herpes and genital herpes.
  74. Herpes zoster
    1. See shingles.
  75. Hepatitis
    1. An inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis may be caused by drug or chemical toxicity (the liver is employed to detoxify many substances). However, hepatitis caused by viruses is very common, the second most frequently reported infectious disease in the U.S. The causitive agent of viral hepatitis is not unique and, indeed, consists of at least five (perhaps 7) highly distinct viruses: hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, hepatitis E, hepatitis F, and hepatitis G.
  76. Hepatitis A
    1. No entry.
  77. Hepatitis B
    1. Hepatitis B caused hepatitis is a very real danger to health care workers and all health care workers as well as anyone who is in potential daily contact with human blood should be vaccinated against hepatitis B virus (it is my opinion, actually, that all people should be vaccinated against hepatitis B virus). In addition, hepatitis B virus may be transmitted by the same routes as HIV (i.e., sexually transmitted disease) and an estimated 300,000 people, mostly young adults, become infected annually. Half of all cases are asymptomatic. 10% of people infected become chronic carriers of the virus. The probability of becoming a chronic carrier is inversely related to the age of exposure to the disease (the younger you are, the higher the odds). Chronic carriers have a 200-fold greater odds of contracting liver cancer than the general population.
    2. See pp. 228, 350, 357, 450, 457, 458, 627, 628, 629 Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the digestive system").
  78. Hepatitis C
    1. No entry.
  79. Hepatitis D
    1. No entry.
  80. Hepatitis E
    1. No entry.
  81. Hepatitis F
    1. No entry.
  82. Hepatitis G
    1. No entry.
  83. Hepatoma
    1. See liver cancer.
  84. Histoplasmosis
    1. A systemic mycosis that superficially resembles tuberculosis. Histoplasmosis is relatively common in the states adjoining the Ohio and Mississippi rivers but not elsewhere in the U.S. It is caused by the fungi Histoplasma capsulatum and apparently is transmitted particularly from sites where bird and bat droppings have accumulated.
    2. See pp. 301, 603-604 Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the respiratory system").
  85. Hookworm
    1. Helminth-caused disease of the small intestine. Because the route of entry is through the skin, hookworm can be avoided by wearing shoes. See Necator americanus.
  86. Hydatidosis [hydatid cyst]
    1. Helminth-caused zoonotic (dogs) disease of the lungs, liver, and brain transmitted by contact with fecal material.
    2. See Echinococcus granulosis.
  87. Hydrophobia
    1. See rabies.
  88. Immunocompromised [immunodepressed]
    1. Having the immune system impaired or weakened such as following the administration of anti-cancer chemotherapeutics or in AIDS patients.
  89. Impetigo
    1. Skin lesions caused by Staphylococci in newborns or Streptococci in older children. Spread by contact transmission.
    2. See pp. 520, 522, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the skin or eyes").
  90. Influenza
    1. A very often epidemic viral disease caused by influenzavirus and associated with progressive inflammation of respiratory tract mucous membrane. Influenza is characterized by fever, physical incapacitation, aches, and pains, but not diarrhea. Some types are zoonotic from swine and waterfowl by direct contact. As an RNA virus, influenza virus evolves rapidly thus making it difficult to choose which strains to use as the basis of vaccines on a year to year basis and highly likely that immunity to a given strain will be irrelevant after a few year's time. The incidence of influenza is very high and every year at least 10,000 to 20,000 die in the U.S. of influenza, mostly the very young and very old.
    2. See pp. 335, 336, 348, 372, 600-602 Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the respiratory system").
  91. Keratitis
    1. Protozoa-caused, water-sourced disease. See Acanthamoeba spp..
  92. Keratoconjunctivitis
    1. Protozoa-caused, non-human animal-sourced disease. See Nosema spp..
  93. Legionellosis
    1. An unappreciably relatively common atypical pneumonia (may exceed 25,000 cases/year in the U.S.) transmitted by aerosolized water, such as air conditioners, and caused by Legionella pneumophila.
  94. Laryngitis
    1. Inflammation of the larynx--the voice box.
  95. Leprosy [hansenosis, Hansen's disease, lepra]
    1. Difficult to cure disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that progresses in two stages if left untreated or not brought under control of the immune system: the tuberculoid or neural form and then a the lepromatous or progressive form. Leprosy is unusual in that it is a bacterial infection of the peripheral rather than central nervous system. The neural form of leprosy is relatively benign and localized with a preference for cooler portions of the body (reflecting the 30C optimum growth temperature of M. leprae). The progressive form is characterized by progressive nerve damage especially of the cooler extremities. There is associated paralysis, loss of sensation, muscle wasting, deformation, and mutilation. Leprosy is rare in the U.S. (2600 known cases) but there are millions of sufferers world-wide.
    2. See pp. 63, 151, 286, 371, 544-545, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the nervous system").
  96. Leptospirosis [lepto]
    1. Any of several diseases including Stuttgart disease and Weil's disease. Zoonotic from domestic livestock by contact with urine, soil, or water that has been in contact with wild mammals, domestic dogs, or domestic cats.
    2. See Leptospira spp..
  97. Leukemia
  98. Listeriosis
  99. Liver cancer [hepatoma]
  100. Lockjaw
    1. An early symptom of tetanus.
  101. Lung fluke
    1. See paragonimiasis.
  102. Lymphangitis
    1. Red streaks visible under the skin eminating from a local infection. These are a sign of inflamed lymph vessels and indication of septicemia.
    2. See pp. 560, 561, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the cardiovascular and lymphatic system").
  103. Lyme disease
    1. Inflammatory, zoonotic disease causing (after long-term infection) arthritis-like symptoms and which is transmitted by ticks from field mice and deer. In 75% of cases a distinctive rash is noted which, weeks later, is followed by flu-like symptoms. Many of the symptoms of long-term Lyme disease resemble those of syphilis. Note that Lyme disease received it's name from Old Lyme, Connecticut where a large cohort of diseased children were described ultimately leading to the discovery of the Lyme disease spirochete. However, the symptoms associated with Lyme disease were apparently first described in Europe during the 1800s though modern medicine did not reaquaint itself with Lyme disease until the Old Lyme cases were described in the 1970s. Lyme disease may be the most common tick-borne disease in this country. Borrelia burgdorferi is the etiological agent of Lyme disease.
    2. See pp. 4, 262, 263, 275, 326, 571, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the cardiovascular and lymphatic system").
  104. Malaria
    1. One of the most important diseases in the world today, malaria is common wherever the disease and its mosquito-vector are both found. This includes the U.S. prior to the implemenation of effective mosquito-control measures, though it appears that the rarity of malaria in the U.S. is slowly reversing. Malaria is caused by a the protozoa genus Plasmodium. It is zoonotic disease having a monkey reservoir. Recurrent fevers and, ultimately, anemia (due to Plasmodium's infection and lysis of red blood cells), are common signs and symptoms of the disease.
    2. See pp. 11, 316, 317, 326, 462, 506-507, 577-579 Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the cardiovascular and lymphatic system").
  105. Malta fever
    1. See brucellosis.
  106. Measles
    1. Highly contagious, highly virulent to the very young and elderly, viral disease. Humans serve as the only reservoir. Caused by the rubeola virus, measles has a respiratory portal of entry and exit. Occurrence usually leads to immunity for life. Measles is one of the Ms in the MMR vaccine.
    2. See pp. 526, 527, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the skin or eyes").
  107. Meningitis
    1. Infection of the meninges (which are the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) usually experienced as a headache with nausea and vomitting. Viral meningitis is both more common and generally a milder disease than bacterial meningitis.
    2. See pp. 277, 280, 369, 383, 402, 453, 538-541, 551-552, 648 Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the nervous system").
  108. Meningococcal meningitis
    1. Meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis.
  109. Microencephalitis
    1. Protozoa-caused, water in which people swim-sourced disease.
    2. See Acanthamoeba spp. See Naegleria fowleri.
  110. Mononucleosis [mono, infectious mononucleosis]
    1. A disease, caused by the epstein-barr virus, which is usually asymptomatic if occurring during early childhood. In the U.S., however, occurrence is usually delayed into young adulthood, especially with higher socioeconomic status, and transmission is usually via saliva.
    2. See pp. 349, 357, 574-575, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the cardiovascular and lymphatic system").
  111. Montezuma's revenge
    1. See traveler's diarrhea.
  112. Mucormycosis
    1. Opportunistic mycosis. See Mucor rouxii and Rhizopus spp.
  113. Mumps
    1. Mumps is one of the Ms in the MMR vaccine.
  114. Mycosis
    1. Diseases caused by fungi are termed mycoses, which is the plural of mycosis.
  115. Myocarditis
    1. Inflamtion of the mycocardium, the heart muscle tissue.
  116. Nongonococcal urethritis [nonspecific urethritis]
    1. Urethritis, often sexually transmitted, not caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and most often caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. Acqisition of nongonococcal urethritis is inhibited by condom use.
    2. See pp. 649-651, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the urinary and reproductive systems").
  117. Neurocysticercosis
    1. Helminth-caused disease of the brain and other tissue. Neuocysticercosis is not very prevalent in the U.S. though common in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. See Taenia solium.
  118. Opportunistic infection
    1. An infection caused by a generally harmless microorganism but which is pathogenic on hosts who are immunocompromised. See opportunist.
  119. Oral herpes [fever blister, cold sore]
    1. Disease caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 and characterized by lesions that form about the mouth and in other areas of the body. Herpes simplex virus type 1 both enters and exits by way of the skin.
    2. See pp. 525, 528, 532, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the skin or eyes").
  120. Ornithosis
    1. See psittacosis.
  121. Otitis media [ear infection]
    1. Infection of the auditory tube such that pus is formed and pressure is built up against the eardrum. Otitis media is most often (60-65%) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae.
  122. Paragonimiasis [lung fluke]
    1. Helminth-caused disease of the lungs. See Paragonimus westermani.
  123. Paralytic shellfish poisoning
    1. A disease of mollusks caused by consumption of the red tide-causing, neurotoxin-emitting algae Gonyaulax spp. Paralytic shellfish poisoning is spread to humans who consume afflicted mollusks.
  124. Pediatric (adj)
    1. Of or pertaining to children.
  125. Pelvic inflammatory disease [PID]
    1. Extensive bacterial infection of the female pelvic organs, often caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia spp. Approximately 1 million cases occur anually. PID is an important cause of female sterility. Acqisition of PID is inhibited by condom use.
    2. See pp. 651, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the urinary and reproductive systems").
  126. Peptic disease syndrome [peptic ulcers]
    1. Ulcers found in the stomach and duodenum caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Permanent eradication of peptic ulcers is often as simple as antibiotic treatment.
    2. See pp. 276, 277, 408, 624, 625 Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the digestive system").
  127. Pericarditis
    1. Inflammation of the pericardium, the sac surround the heart.
  128. Peritonitis
    1. Inflammation of the (serous) membrane that lines the abdominal cavity of mammals. See Bacteroides spp..
  129. Pertussis [whooping cough]
    1. A disease of unusually long duration usually of children noted for its distinctive and severe "whoop-like" cough (actually these are the in breaths between long bouts of coughing) caused by Bordetella pertussis. Pertussis is particularly severe because in the course of the disease the lung cilia involved in the ciliary escalator are compromised causing mucus accumulation, the clearing of which is associated with the characteristic pertussis coughing. Pertussis is the P in the DTP vaccine.
    2. See pp. 277, 593-594 Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the respiratory system").
  130. Pharyngitis
    1. Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the throat--a sore throat.
  131. Pimple
    1. A very localized minor infection of the skin. See acne and folliculitis.
    2. See p. 520, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the skin or eyes").
  132. Pink eye
    1. Highly contagious conjunctivitis. See Moraxella lacunata.

  133. Pinworm
    1. Helminth-caused disease of the large intestine. See Enterobius vermicularis.
  134. Plague
    1. See bubonic plague.
  135. Pneumococcal pneumonia
    1. Pneumonia caused by Streptococcus spp..
  136. Pneumonia
    1. Inflammation of the alveoli, and accumulation of solids and liquids in, the lungs caused by an infectious agent or irritants. Symptoms include breathing difficulty, chest pain, reddish appearance to the lungs, and blood in sputum. This is a serious, though often treatable disease that particularly strikes the very sick and weak. See typical and atypical pneumonia. See Pasteurella spp. for pneumonia in non-human animals.
    2. See pp. 592, 597-600, 605-607 Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the respiratory system").
  137. Pneumonic plague
    1. Yersinia pestis caused zoonotic disease transmitted by the air or direct contact with rodents. Pneumonic plague is especially a concern for health care workers treating those suffering from bubonic plague especially since it has a fatality rate approaching 100% with or without treatment.
    2. See pp. 569, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the cardiovascular and lymphatic system").
  138. Polio [poliomyelitis]
    1. A viral disease (polio) that usually does not enter the blood but if it does can lead to destruction of motor neurons (poliomyelitis). Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route. There are two anti-polio vaccines in use: The killed virus Salk vaccine and the live attenuated virus Sabin vaccine. The former is safer, but more expensive, and not as long lasting.
    2. See pp. 351-352, 545-547, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the nervous system").
  139. Primary atypical pneumonia [walking pneumonia]
    1. This atypical pneumonia is caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
  140. Psittacosis [ornithosis]
    1. Zoonotic from birds (especially parrots) by direct contact. See Chlamydia psittaci.
  141. Puerperal sepsis
    1. See childbirth fever.
  142. Pulmonary nocardiosis
    1. ??? See Nocardia asteroides.
  143. Pus
    1. White-yellow fluid consisting of white blood cells, tissue debris, and microorganisms.
  144. Pyelonephritis
    1. Inflammation of the kidney. Can become very serious if left untreated. 75% of cases due to Escherichia coli.
  145. Rabbit fever
    1. See tularemia.
  146. Rabies [hydrophobia]
    1. Zoonotic from bats, skunks, foxes, dogs, and cats transmitted by direct contact with saliva, via a bite or even just a lick, and with a parenteral (a wound) or mucous membrane portal of entry (e.g., following contact with the eyes). Mortality from rabies is via acute encephalitis approaches 100% without treatment. Treatment consists of vaccination as well as antisera and must be administered during the three to eight week period of incubation. Animals infected with rabies may bite with high probability. Indications for rabies treatment following contact with a paralyzed animal or following a bite include: (i) animal tests positive for rabies virus, (ii) bite was unprovoked (or contact with saliva of paralyzed animal was made) and animal was wild and not available for examination, or (iii) bite was unprovoked and animal was a dog or cat living in an area with a relatively high prevalence of rabies. Prevention of cases among humans in the U.S. is most facilely accomplished through vaccination of dogs and cats and avoidence of direct contact with wild animals.
    2. See pp. 342, 353, 450, 547-549, 550-551, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the nervous system").
  147. Relapsing fever
    1. Tick-transmitted, Borrelia spp.-caused disease characterized by recurring high fever lasting five to seven days.
    2. See pp. 275, 570, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the cardiovascular and lymphatic system").
  148. Rheumatic fever
    1. A strep throat complication that involves an autoimmune attack of the joints (arthritis) or valves of the heart. Rheumatic fever is fairly rare in modern times in this country though at one time it was the greatest killer of school-aged children in the U.S.
  149. Ringworm [tinea, jock itch, athlete's foot]
    1. Zoonotic mycosis (i.e., fungus-caused disease) acquired from domestic animals through direct contact as well as indirect contact transmission. Ringworm of the groin is called jock itch and ringworm of the foot, athlete's foot. Caused by various fungi including Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp., and Epidermophyton spp.
    2. See pp. 527-529, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the skin or eyes").
  150. Rocky Mountain spotted fever
    1. Tick-transmitted zoonotic disease characterized by chills, fever, physical incapacitation, joint and muscle pain, and a red/purple eruption and common in the Southeastern U.S. and Appalachia. A measles-like rash develops about a week after receiving the bite. Left untreated the mortality rate is about 20%. Rickettsia rickettsii is the etiological agent.
    2. See pp. 283, 572-273, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the cardiovascular and lymphatic system").
  151. Rubella
    1. See German measles.
  152. Q fever
    1. A typhus-like (but milder) zoonotic disease common to ruminants in found in North America, Europe, and Africa and transmitted to humans by raw milk, contact, or ticks. See Coxiella burnetii.
  153. Salmonellosis
    1. Primarily an intestinal disease but also associated with systemic symptoms. Zoonotic from poultry, rats, and turtles by ingestion of contaminated food and water.
    2. See Salmonella spp.
  154. Scabies
    1. Mite-caused contagious disease of the skin.
    2. See pp. 323, 520, 531, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the skin or eyes").
  155. Scalded-skin syndrome [toxic epidermal necrosis]
    1. Serious Staphylococcal-caused toxemia that leads to skin that appears "scalded" and which peels off skin in sheets.
    2. See pp. 520, 521, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the skin or eyes").
  156. Scarlet fever [scarlatina]
    1. Acute, contagious disease characterized by fever, inflammation of the nose, mouth, and throat, and a red rash. Scarlet fever is caused by erythrogenic exotoxin expressing Streptococcus pyogenes.
  157. Schistosomiais
    1. Helminth-caused disease of the veins.
    2. See Schistosoma spp.
  158. Septic arthritis
    1. Arthritis associated with systemic bacterial infection.
    2. See Haemophilus influenzae.
  159. Septicemia [blood poisoning]
    1. Invasion of blood by a microorganism from a focus of infection that results in the microorganism replicating within the blood. This is a localized infection gone very bad. See especially Klebsiella spp., Pasteurella spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
    2. See pp. 373, 560-562, 567 Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the cardiovascular and lymphatic system").
  160. Septic shock
    1. Shock, often of nosocomial origin, produced usually by gram-negative bacteria (i.e., endotoxin). Septic shock is characterized especially by decreased blood flow and associated oxygen starvation, though also impaired cerebral function, rapid breathing, cold extremities, fever, rapid heart rate, and impaired cardiac functioning. Note that because it is endotoxin that causes septic shock, treatment with antibiotics can aggravate the condition by causing further pathogen lysis. Approximately 100,000 people die of septic shock in the U.S. each year making it the13th leading cause of death in this country. Organisms most often associated with septic shock include Bacteroides spp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Psuedomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens.
    2. See pp. 398, 438, 560-561, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the cardiovascular and lymphatic system").
  161. Sexually transmitted disease
    1. A disease that is transmitted in the course of sexual activity. Includes most diseases of the reproductive system.
  162. Shigellosis [bacillary dysentery]
    1. Infection with or dysentery caused by Shigella spp.
  163. Shingles [herpes zoster]
    1. Latent infection caused by the varicella-zoster herpes virus (the same one that causes chickenpox). Varicella referes to the chickenpox stage while zoster refers to its ability to causes shingles, i.e., fairly localized, painful, chickenpox-like lesions.
    2. See pp. 358, 372, 524, 525, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the skin or eyes").
  164. Shock
    1. "A state of profound depression of the vital processes of the body characterized by pallor, rapid but weak pulse, rapid and shallow respiration, restlessness, anxiety or mental dullness, nausea or vomiting associated with reduced total blood volume and low blood pressure and subnormal temperature resulting ususally from severe (especially crash) injuries, hemorrhage, burns, or major surgery." (Webster85).
  165. Sinusitis
    1. Inflammation of mucous membranes of the sinuses resulting in a heavy nasal discharge. Blockage of mucus drainage can lead to a build up of pressure and headache.
  166. Smallpox [variola]
    1. Severe viral disease caused by the extinct-in-the-wild (we hope) variola virus. The single greatest success story of prophylactic immunization!
    2. See pp. 10-11, 13, 337, 349, 523-524, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the skin or eyes").
  167. Staphylococcal food poisoning
    1. A food poisoning caused by intoxication by a Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin. Staphylococcal food poisoning occurs especially under aerobic consitions, when growth of the flora typically found in a food but not that of S. aereus is suppressed by either inadequate heat treatment or by high osmotic pressure, and when a food has not been refrigerated for long periods. Cooking food containing S. aereus enterotoxin does not make it safe to eat.
    2. See pp. 618-619 Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the digestive system").
  168. Strep throat [septic sore throat, strep sore throat]
    1. Difficult to diagnoses inflammatory soar throat characterized by fever and physical incapacity and caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. Without treatment, strep throat can lead to complicating illnesses such as rheumatic fever. For erythrogenic toxin carrying strains, scarlet fever also can occur. Recovery confers resistance to subsequent infection by the same type of Streptococcus pyogenes but not necessarily different strains.
    2. See pp. 152, 153, 180, 371, 393, 397, 412, 472, 522, 562, 563, 589-590, 600, 647 Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the respiratory system").
  169. Sty
    1. An infection of an eyelash follicle. Often caused by Staphylococcus aureus.
    2. See p. 520, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the skin or eyes").
  170. Syphilis
    1. Three stage, chronic, difficult to diagnose, difficult to treat, sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. First stage is associated with a chancre sore at the point of infection, often unnoticably present on the female cervix or, less often, within the male urethra. Acqisition of syphilis is inhibited by condom use.
    2. See pp. 4, 55, 59, 76, 152, 275, 276, 371, 394, 457, 458, 491, 651-654, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the urinary and reproductive systems").
  171. Tapeworm
    1. Helminth-caused zoonotic (cattle) disease of the small intestine transmitted by ingestion of undercooked, contaminated beef.
    2. See Taenia saginata.
  172. Tetanus
    1. An acute state caused by tetanospasmin, an exotoxin released upon lysis by Clostridium tetani that is growing, usually, in deep, poorly cleaned, anoxigenic wounds that showed little bleeding when fresh. Tetanus is characterized by involuntary muscle contraction called spastic paralysis (an early symptom is lockjaw) and shows high mortality (20%). Hundreds of thousands of cases occur world-wide annually but less 100 are in the U.S. This is because tetanospasmin toxoid confers high amounts of protection to those properly immunized and boosted (every 10 years). Boosting immunity through toxoid vaccination or use of antitoxin following injury but prior to the onset of spastic paralysis are effective prophylaxes. Because of the very small amounts of toxin necessary to cause disease, recovery does not confer immunity.
    2. See pp. 146, 285, 371, 396, 397, 541-542, 543, 666. Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the nervous system").
  173. Thrush
    1. Candidiasis inflammation of the mouth and throat that frequently occurs in newborns and AIDS patients.
    2. See pp. 298, 299, 368, 502, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the skin or eyes").
  174. Tinea
    1. See ringworm.
  175. Tonsillitis
  176. Inflammation of the tonsils.
    1. toxic epidermal necrosis
  177. See Scalded skin syndrome.
    1. toxic shock syndrome
    2. Sometimes fatal disease associated with but not limited to menstruating females using tampons. Characterized by fever, nausea, diarrhea, severe redness of the skin, and shock. Caused by Staphylococcus aureus.
    3. See pp. 4, 383, 520, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the skin or eyes").
  178. Toxoplasmosis
    1. Protozoa-caused, cat and other animal-sourced zoonotic disease than can cause congenical defects if afflicting a pregnant woman and her fetus, especially if this is the first exposure of the woman to the disease. The fetus can suffer from convulsions, brain damage, blindness, and death. Note that toxoplasmosis ususally occurs following exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in undercooked meats though contact with cat feces might be an additional route of infection.
  179. Trachoma
    1. Conjunctivitis that can lead to blindness (leading cause in the world today) if left untreated. Direct contact transmission. Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.
    2. See pp. 283, 532, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the skin or eyes").
  180. Traveler's diarrhea
    1. a.k.a., turista, Montezuma's revenge
    2. Common affliction of tourists visiting foreign lands characterized by sickness in the intestine and diarrhea.
    3. See Escherichia coli and Shigella spp..
  181. Trichanosis
    1. Helminth-caused zoonotic (pigs and bears) disease of the muscle transmitted by ingestion of undercooked meat.
    2. See Trichinella spiralis.
  182. Tuberculosis
    1. a.k.a., TB, consumption
    2. Disease of the respiratory tract, and to a lesser extent other body tissues, spread by aerosols (e.g., as produced by coughing) caused by the very slow growing bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Fever, night sweats, and weight loss are associated with toxic products given off with tissue destruction. Because of M. tuberculosis's slow growth, sporadic growth, and tendency to hide within macrophages, to be effective, anti-M. tuberculosis chemotherapy must be continued for as long as one or two years. Failure to comply to this very long course of treatment can and does result in the emergence of antibiotic resistant M. tuberculosis strains. About 20,000 new cases of tuberculosis are reported in the U.S. each year and approximately 2000 deaths are attributed to tuberculosis each year in the U.S. In contract, worldwide as many as 3 million people die of tuberculosis every year.
    3. See pp. 12, 41, 58, 63, 286, 370, 371, 372, 393, 394, 452, 497, 594-597 Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the respiratory system").
  183. Tularemia
    1. a.k.a., rabbit fever
    2. Highly contagious zoonotic disease of rodents, rabbits, and other wild and domestic animals transmitted by contact, inhalation, ingestion, or by deerfly bites (though to humans by ) and marked by symptoms such as fever. Without treatment mortality rates can be as high as 15%.
    3. See Francisella tularensis.
  184. Turista
    1. See traveler's diarrhea.
  185. Typhoid fever
    1. Severe intestinal and systemic disease only of humans, spread only by contact with human feces. Do not confuse with typhus.
    2. See Salmonella typhi.
  186. Typhus
    1. Do not confuse with typhoid fever.
    2. See epidemic typhus, endemic murine typhus, Rickettsia prowazekii, and Rickettsia typhi.
  187. Typical pneumonia
    1. Pneumonias caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Contrast with atypical pneumonia.
    2. See pp. 597-600 Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the respiratory system").
  188. Ulcer
    1. A break in skin or mucous membrane associated with tissue disintegration. For stomach ulcer see Helicobacter pylori.
  189. Undulant fever
    1. See brucellosis.
  190. Ureteritis
    1. Inflammation of the ureters.
  191. Urethritis
    1. An inflammation of the urethra. See Trichomonas vaginalis.
  192. Vaginitis
    1. See Trichomonas vaginalis.
  193. Varicella
    1. See chickenpox.
  194. Variolla
    1. See smallpox.
  195. Verruca vulgaris
    1. See warts.
  196. Viral hemorrhagic fever
    1. No entry.
  197. Viral encephalitis
    1. Arthropod-borne encephalitis caused by a variety of viruses and having symptoms ranging from subclinical to rapid death.
    2. See pp. 549, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the nervous system").
  198. Viral pneumonia
    1. Viral atypical pneumonia caused by respiratory syncytial virus afflicts infants especially nosocomially.
  199. Walking pneumonia
    1. See primary atypical pneumonia.
  200. Warts
    1. a.k.a., verruca vulgaris
    2. Benign tumors of the skin caused by various papaloma viruses. Sexually transmitted warts are associated with some cancers.
    3. See pp. 349, 357, 523, 656, 657, Tortora et al., 1995 (especially, "Microbial diseases of the skin or eyes").
  201. Western equine encephalitis
    1. Zoonotic from horses and birds by mosquito.
    2. See Alphavirus spp..
  202. Whooping cough
    1. See pertussis.
  203. Wriggly worms
    1. See anisakiasis.
  204. Yellow fever
    1. Zoonotic from monkeys by mosquito.
    2. See Alphavirus spp.
  205. Zoster
    1. See shingles.
  206. Vocabulary
    1. Infectious diseases of the skin and eyes
      1. Abscess
      2. Acne
      3. Boil
      4. Candidiasis
      5. Carbuncle
      6. Chickenpox
      7. Cold sores
      8. Fever blisters
      9. Folliculitis
      10. Furuncle
      11. Genital herpes
      12. German measles
      13. Impetigo
      14. Measles
      15. Oral herpes
      16. Pimple
      17. Ringworm
      18. Rubella
      19. Scabies
      20. Scalded skin syndrome
      21. Shingles
      22. Smallpox
      23. Sty
      24. Thrush
      25. Toxic shock syndrome
      26. Trachoma
      27. Varicella
      28. Variola
      29. Warts
      30. Zosters
    2. Localized infections of the skin
      1. Abscess
      2. Boil
      3. Carbuncle
      4. Folliculitis
      5. Furuncle
      6. Pimple
      7. Sty
    3. Infectious diseases of the nervous system
      1. Bacterial meningitis
      2. Botulism
      3. Encephalitis
      4. Leprosy
      5. Meningitis
      6. Poliomyelitis
      7. Rabies
      8. Tetanus
    4. Infectious diseases of the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems
      1. Black death
      2. Blood poisoning
      3. Bubonic plague
      4. Childbirth fever
      5. Epidemic typhus
      6. Gas gangrene
      7. Lyme disease
      8. Lymphangitis
      9. Malaria
      10. Mononucleosis
      11. Plague
      12. Puerperal sepsis
      13. Rocky Mountain spotted fever
      14. Septicemia
      15. Septic shock
    5. Infectious diseases of the respiratory system
      1. Atypical pneumonias
      2. Common cold
      3. Diphtheria
      4. Influenza
      5. Histoplasmosis
      6. Pneumonia
      7. Strep throat
      8. Tuberculosis
      9. Typical pneumonias
    6. Infectious diseases of the digestive system
      1. Dysentery
      2. Giardiasis
      3. Hepatitis B
      4. Staphylococcal food poisoning
      5. Peptic disease syndrome
    7. Infectious diseases of the urinary and reproductive systems
      1. Genital herpes
      2. Genital warts
      3. Gonorrhea
      4. Nongonococcal urethritis
      5. Pelvic inflammatory disease
      6. Syphilis
  207. Practice questions
    1. Which is not caused by a herpes virus? (circle only one correct answer) [PEEK]
      1. shingles
      2. genital herpes
      3. chickenpox
      4. cold sores
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    2. True or False, an abscess is worse than a carbuncle (circle True or False)? [PEEK]
    3. Which is not caused by a fungus. (circle only one correct answer) [PEEK]
      1. jock itch
      2. thrush
      3. athlete's foot
      4. histoplasmosis
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    4. If genital warts can cause cancer, why doesn't genital herpes? (note, I'm looking for a better answer than, for example, "Because each is caused by a different virus.") [PEEK]
    5. The ultimate success story of applied immunology is the prophylactic anti-_____________________ vaccine: (circle only one correct answer) [PEEK]
      1. varicella chicken_pox
      2. rubella
      3. variola
      4. pertussis
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    6. "A 12-year-old diabetic girl using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion to manage her diabetes developed a fever (39.4C), low blood pressure, abdominal pain, and erythroderma. She was supposed to change the needle insertion site every three days after cleaning the skin with iodine solution halogen. Frequently she did not change the insertion site more often than every ten days. Blood culture was negative, and abscesses at insertion sites were not cultured. What is the probable cause of her symptoms?" (p. 536, Tortora et al., 1995) [PEEK]
    7. Which is generally the more severe (i.e., highest rate of mortality without treatment): (circle only one correct answer) [PEEK]
      1. polio infection
      2. viral meningitis
      3. rubella
      4. rabies
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    8. True or False, antisera treatment for rabies infection is utilized in order to inactivate exotoxin produced by the gram-positive rabies bacillus (circle True or False)? [PEEK]
    9. A disease usually of the gastrointestinal tract that can, but in the vast majority of cases does not, lead to neurological damage, which is heat-labile, and which does not have a gram-positive etiology.[PEEK]
    10. Difficult to cure bacterial infection of the peripheral nervous system? (circle only one correct answer) [PEEK]
      1. polio
      2. leprosy
      3. histoplasmosis
      4. Clostridium tetani etiology
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    11. What treatment is used against tetanus under the following conditions? (i) Before a person suffers a deep puncture wound and (ii) After a person suffers a deep puncture wound. [PEEK]
    12. Which is not caused by a bacterial pathogen: (circle only one correct answer) [PEEK]
      1. bubonic plague
      2. epidemic typhus
      3. Lyme disease
      4. Rocky Mountain spotted fever
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    13. Late onset of this disease is associated with higher economic status (circle only one correct answer) [PEEK]
      1. mononucleosis
      2. malaria
      3. epidemic typhus
      4. puerperal sepsis
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    14. Which would you expect to be associated with septic shock? (circle only one correct answer) [PEEK]
      1. Escherichia coli
      2. Corynebacterium diphtheriae
      3. Clostridium tetani
      4. human papilloma virus
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    15. Which of the following is common particularly in the South Eastern quadrant of the continental U.S.? (circle only one correct answer) [PEEK]
      1. bubonic plague
      2. Lyme disease
      3. Rocky Mountain spotted fever
      4. epidemic typhus
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    16. Puerperal sepsis (circle only one correct answer) [PEEK]
      1. is common among the immunosuppressed
      2. over the past quarter of a century has been one of the many nosocomial infections that has been on the rise in this country as a consequence of the overuse of antibiotics
      3. afflicts males increasingly but still rarely
      4. never has and, very likely, never will be an important etiology of premature death
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above

    17. What is the explanation for the recurrence of the fevers graphed in the figure above? (circle only one correct answer) [PEEK]
      1. a periodically latent pathogen
      2. recurrent infection of an old war injury
      3. periodic immune system escape
      4. three weeks, three diseases: time to buy a new immune system
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    18. Which may be caused by a virus? (circle only one correct answer) [PEEK]
      1. histoplasmosis
      2. diphtheria
      3. tuberculosis
      4. atypical pneumonia
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    19. Which causes typical pneumonia? (circle only one correct answer) [PEEK]
      1. Chlamydia pneumoniae
      2. Streptococcus pneumoniae
      3. Klebsiella pneumoniae
      4. Mycoplasma pneumoniae
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    20. Which is not a viral infection? (circle only one correct answer) [PEEK]
      1. measles
      2. stomach flu
      3. rubella
      4. warts
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    21. An Ohio college professor with a love for the great outdoors becomes ill and is tentatively diagnosed with tuberculosis. However, he comes up negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. What might be an alternative diagnosis? [PEEK]
    22. An etiologyetiology of which disease is Haemophilus influenza? (circle only one correct answer) [PEEK]
      1. the common cold
      2. influenza
      3. a typical pneumonia
      4. an atypical pneumonia
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    23. What do the D, P, and T in DPT vaccine stand for? (full credit for all three right, half credit for two of three, bonus point if you can tell me physically what each of this trivalent vaccine consists of). [PEEK]
    24. Distinguish digestive system infection from digestive system intoxication. [PEEK]
    25. Distinguish dysentery from diarrhea. [PEEK]
    26. In a fit of ravenous morning stupidity that could only happen a few weeks into the camping trip from heck, you break down and consume half the can of ham that sat open on the picnic bench all night long. Three days later you suddenly have a high fever and diarrhea. What was wrong with the ham? [PEEK]
    27. Blood and sexually transmitted disease that becomes chronic in only a portion of carriers though with greater likelihood the earlier in life infection occurs [PEEK]
    28. Which of the following is not associated with an increased cancer risk? (circle only one correct answer) [PEEK]
      1. PID
      2. hepatitis B
      3. papilloma virus
      4. genital warts
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    29. Sexually transmitted disease that is difficult to detect early in females because the chancre lesion is often present on the cervix (circle only one correct answer): [PEEK]
      1. gonorrhea
      2. genital herpes
      3. syphilis
      4. genital warts
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    30. Sexually transmitted disease having a mucous membrane portal of entry not limited to the urinary or reproductive systems (circle only one correct answer): [PEEK]
      1. gonorrhea
      2. genital herpes
      3. syphilis
      4. genital warts
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    31. What fraction of genital warts serotypes are potentially associated with penis cancer? (circle only one correct answer) [PEEK]
      1. 100%
      2. 50%
      3. 10%
      4. 0%
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    32. Three stage, difficult to treat, and difficult to diagnose sexually transmitted disease is caused by (circle only one correct answer) [PEEK]
      1. Neisseria gonorrhoeae
      2. Chlamydia trachomatis
      3. Treponema pallidum
      4. herpes simplex virus
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    33. Would you expect a lesion associated with genital herpes to resemble a fever blister? Why or why not? [PEEK]
    34. Which is not caused by a virus? (circle only one correct answer) [PEEK]
      1. measles
      2. smallpox
      3. scabies
      4. rubella
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    35. Sexually transmitted disease whose transmission is incompletely inhibited by regular condom use is (circle only one correct answer): [PEEK]
      1. gonorrhea
      2. genital herpes
      3. syphilis
      4. genital warts
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    36. Why would you expect antibiotic for tetanus (a disease resulting from exotoxin production) not to lead to septic shock? [PEEK]
    37. To avoid contraction of what disease especially should you fully vaccinate your dog? [PEEK]
    38. Which of the following is common particularly in the South Eastern quadrant of the continental U.S.? (circle only one correct answer) [PEEK]
      1. histoplasmosis
      2. coccidioidomycosis
      3. Rocky Mountain spotted fever
      4. epidemic typhus
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    39. Other than luck, give a reason why genital warts are associated with cancer in only a minor fraction of cases.[PEEK]
    40. Which of the following organisms does not cause an atypical pneumonia? (choose correct answer) [PEEK]
      1. Haemophilus influenza
      2. Chlamydia pneumonia
      3. Klebsiella pneumonia
      4. Staphylococcus aureus
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    41. A localized skin infection that the body fails to contain thus resulting in invasion of surrounding tissue is called a __________. [PEEK]
    42. You lead a group on a camping trip. Despite their thirst, as a good microbiologist you made sure you purified all of the drinking water prior to use by adding a few drops of household bleach and incubating 30 minutes. Nevertheless, a week later you are all sick with diarrhea. As the group leader, you naturally are the first to visit a doctor with this condition. The doctor takes a stool sample and asks whether you've been out of the country lately. The stool sample comes up negative leading to the conclusion you're likely not suffering from an enteric infection (or intoxication). Why should you mistrust this diagnosis?[PEEK]
    43. Respiratory inflammation with a rapidly evolving etiology, high instance, and significant absolute annual death rate. (circle only one correct answer) [PEEK]
      1. common cold
      2. influenza
      3. typical pneumonia
      4. atypical pneumonia
      5. all of the above
      6. none of the above
    44. Your great uncle Harry is 80 years old but still lives a highly social life, a man of the town about the teaming metropolis of Mansfield, Ohio. He hasn't had a cold years and doesn't recall having had more than a few dozen in his youth. Harry's not especially hygienic (but you're still fond of him) and there's nothing wrong with his memory. Realistically, to what might you attribute Harry's recent lack of bouts with the common cold? [PEEK]
    45. A disease typically caused by Streptococcus pyogenes is __________? [PEEK]
    46. There are approximately 600,000 reported cases of gonorrhea each year in this country. Though antibiotic treatment for the disease is effective, clearly it isn't sufficient to eliminate it from our society. Why don't we just vaccinate people against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the etiological agent? [PEEK]
    47. Rheumatic fever is a complication of what disease (if left untreated)? [PEEK]
    48. Give the name of a water borne gastrointestinal disease which is resistant to chlorine disinfection. [PEEK]
    49. What is the name of a latent infection, very common in another form among juveniles (almost universal), which demonstrates localized, painful lesions on the skin. [PEEK]
    50. Upper respiratory tract infection (other than influenza) caused by a sufficiently large number of serologically distinct viruses that recovery from infection leads to immunity against the specific etiology, but not protection from the disease. [PEEK]
    51. Infection whose symptoms include especially headache, nausea, and vomiting, and which can have either a viral or bacterial etiology, the latter of which is typically the more severe. [PEEK]
    52. Increasingly antibiotic resistant sexually transmitted disease, causing in early stages an inflammation of mucous membranes wherever contact with the etiological agent occurs. Left untreated the infection eventually becomes systemic. Symptoms are fairly recognizable, particularly in males, with pus discharging from the penis. [PEEK]
    53. __________ is a disease spread by lice. [PEEK]
      1. black plague
      2. tuberculosis.
      3. malaria.
      4. epidemic typhus.
      5. salmonellosis.
      6. gas gangrene.
    54. What characteristic of the treatment, or etiology identification of atypical pneumonias distinguishes them from typical ones? [PEEK]
    55. Flaccid paralysis is associated with disease caused by __________. [PEEK]
      1. HIV
      2. Mycobacterium leprae.
      3. Escherichia coli.
      4. Proteus spp.
      5. Clostridium botulinum.
      6. Neisseria meningitidis.
    56. A localized (i.e., contained) inflammation of skin tissue which surrounds pus is called a(n) __________. [PEEK]
      1. carbuncle.
      2. candidiasis.
      3. scabies.
      4. abscess.
      5. genital herpes.
      6. oral herpes.
    57. Another name for the disease known as chickenpox is __________. [PEEK]
      1. shingles.
      2. German measles.
      3. variola major.
      4. variola minor.
      5. varicella.
      6. vaccinia.
    58. Distinguish polio from poliomyelitis. [PEEK]
    59. __________ is a sexually transmitted viral disease that has been linked with penis cancer, cervical cancer, and, most recently, to anal cancer as well. [PEEK]
    60. Name one mycosis. [PEEK]
    61. What is lymphangitis? [PEEK]
    62. __________ is an air-transmitted disease with a fatality approaching 100%. [PEEK]
      1. Atypical pneumonia
      2. Epidemic typhus
      3. Lymphangitis
      4. Measles
      5. Pneumonic plague
      6. Viral meningitis
    63. __________ is a tick-transmitted disease common particularly in the Southeast United States and Appalachia, which has an untreated-mortality of about 20%. [PEEK]
      1. Black death
      2. Malaria
      3. Ringworm
      4. Rocky Mountain spotted fever
      5. Viral encephalitis
    64. __________ is caused by a protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. [PEEK]
      1. dysentery
      2. epiglottitis
      3. malaria
      4. poliomyelitis
      5. ring worm
      6. syphilis
    65. Nongonococcal urethritis is most often caused by __________. [PEEK]
      1. Chlamydia trachomatis
      2. Escherichia coli
      3. herpes virus
      4. Neisseria gonorrhea
      5. Treponema
      6. Yersinia pestis
    66. __________ is caused by varicella-zoster virus. [PEEK]
      1. common cold
      2. German measles
      3. herpes
      4. influenza
      5. shingles
    67. viral meningitis __________ is a respiratory disease, the treatment of which can require as long as two years of antibiotic treatment. [PEEK]Practice question answersv, Pneumonic plagueiv, Rocky Mountain spotted feveriii, malariai, Chlamydia trachomatisv, shingles
  208. References
    1. No entry.